Saturday, November 16, 2019
American History Essay Example for Free
American History Essay The civil war, according to President Abraham Lincoln, was not really fought to end the prolonged existence of slavery in the United States. The American Civil War was fought to preserve the Union and safeguard the interest of the American people but not of the slaves. Lincoln, who was not an absolute abolitionist himself, believe that the slaves should be free gradually and not on a one time big time basis. But as the civil war became lengthy, Lincoln and his administration has made colossal changes to the original plan and had to issue an Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slaves in the Confederacy. This action was well thought of Lincoln. When the congress has passed the Second Confiscation Act on July 17, 1862, Lincoln was prompted to respond. The Second Confiscation Act entailed that all slaves of everyone in rebellion to the United States were declared free. The act from the congress was not only what impelled Lincoln to act but also the peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ growing aversion of slavery. Lincoln has read his drafted Ã¢â¬Å"Preliminary ProclamationÃ¢â¬ to Secretary of State William H. Seward and Secretary of Navy Gideon Welles. Both were overwhelmed and were unable to respond quickly. On July 22, Lincoln discussed the matter to his cabinet and has received a lot of mix reactions but majority of the cabinet approved of the proclamation. Yet, it was only a consultation. The cabinet reviewed the contexts on September 22 and Lincoln has composed the final Emancipation Proclamation on New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Day of 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation pronounced that Ã¢â¬Å"all slaves within any states or on a designated part of a State whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, henceforward, and forever freeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The Emancipation Proclamation guaranteed freedom only of those slaves in the states not in the jurisdiction of the Union. LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s Secretary of State William H. Seward has criticized the irony of the emancipation. Seward pointed out that the Union might have been sympathetic to slavery by freeing the slaves on the states uncontrolled by the Union but holding them in servitude in places possible to be freed by the government. Lincoln has known this but he did not want to irritate the slaveholders in the Union. Moreover, the Emancipation Proclamation would have not been easily released if it were not a war necessity. The Union saw its last resort on freeing the slave to increase its army and to antagonize the farms and the industries in the South. The proclamation was not sympathy to the slaves but a remedy to the unending war. Yet, the Emancipation Proclamation was one of the greatest victories of the Lincoln administration and of American democracy. It has also stressed that the war is not all about preserving the Union but also on the pressing need to abolish slavery. It was also the foundation of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, which forever end slavery in the United States. On the other hand, after the Emancipation Proclamation the war did not ended soon. Many critics of the Lincoln administration supposed that the proclamation has only worsened the situation. The Union was still deficient of soldiers. Lincoln was prompted to create solutions by issuing the Enrollment Act of Conscription on March 3, 1863, which agitated many Northerners. The Union at the early stage of the war has relied on volunteerism but fewer men wanted to enlist. The Conscription Act imposed military duty to every capable man of 20 to 45 years old. Yet those who can find a substitute or pay $300 could be exempted from the draft. This exemption has angered the poor. Leslie M. Harris (2003) reported that antiwar newspaper in New York began criticizing the draft law citing the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s interference on local affairs on behalf of the Ã¢â¬Å"nigger war. Ã¢â¬ The most unruly response to the act happened in New York City when unruly mobs appeared on July 11, 1963 when the draft took effect. Even though New York politicians have been very supportive of the Emancipation Proclamation, New Yorkers were divided on their stance towards the proclamation. Likewise, the mob consisted mostly of the poor Irish and German immigrants who lived on New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s slum area. Irish and German immigrants in New York were told to prepare for the emancipated slaves who will flee to the North and would seek job. The immigrants did not think it was necessary for them to fight and they also have bigotry towards the African-American because they were usually their competitors to lowest-paying jobs. Yet, the main problem arose when the mob started to create commotions on the city. The first targets of the mob include military and government building, which instituted the inequitable draft. But after a while, the mob targeted the black people. First, they assaulted a black vendor and a nine year-old boy before burning to ashes the Colored Orphan Asylum on Fifth Avenue between Forty-Third and Forty-Fourth Streets. Luckily, no child was hurt in the attack. However, the mob has continued to attack Black people and sometimes killing them. Harris (2003) further reported that the mob singled out men for special violence. William Jones, a black man was hanged and his body burned afterward. Some group white men were even cheering when they kill William Williams, a black sailor, shouting: vengeance on every nigger in New York. The mayhem which lasted five days forced hundreds of Blacks to leave the city. Yet, not every Irish were sympathetic to the mob. There were reported cases were Irishmen helped black men. Irish neighbors of Philip White, a black drugstore owner at the corner of Gold and Frankfurt Street, help drove the mob away because White has been a good neighbor and creditor. However, this interracial cooperation was very least as compared to the havoc against the black people. However, the Union Army stationed at the Potomac were able to pacify the rioters and restore order in the city however they remained encamped around the city for several weeks. The Emancipation Proclamation and the Draft Riots embodied the bearing of the people during the Civil War. Though, only was a war measure, the Emancipation Proclamation was a great demonstration of democracy. The Draft Riots proved that not every person has the heart to fight for the Union and not everyone was in favor of the Emancipation. However, though Washington Times wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"The nation is at this time in a state of Revolution, North, South, East, and West, those who believed in the restoration of the Union and the rule of law never gave up hope but fought for what they believe was right. The New York Draft Riots, the Civil War and all its casualties were the price paid by the United States in order to protect and defend the Constitution, its people and those unalienable rights that were bestowed to each citizen which are Ã¢â¬Å"Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. Ã¢â¬ References Harris, L. M. (2003). In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863. Chicago: University of Chicago. Smith, A. I. , (2007). The American civil war. Macmillan: New York.