Friday, May 1, 2020
Concepts of Humanity and Art Appreciation Essay Example For Students
Concepts of Humanity and Art Appreciation Essay Course Description Art Appreciation focuses on the study and appreciation of representative examples of visual and performing arts, literature, music and significant famous structures around the world. The exploration of interrelationships of the arts and their philosophies emphasizes the nature of humankind and the need to create. The course explores human values, attitudes, and ideas by examining the history and nature of human creative expression from a variety of time periods, art forms, creators and cultural traditions. This course aims to introduce the students to the visual arts, literature, philosophy, music, and the performing arts. General Objectives 1. To provide the students with a general overview of the humanities making them see their own world from many vantage points and help them grow up to become better human beings. 2. To acquaint the students theoretically to visual, auditory, and performing arts (traditional and contemporary) through the study of the types, medium, basic elements and principles of organization of each form. 3. To become aware of his/her surroundings and associate them with man of the past thereby integrating the two periods together, thus making the world a better place to live in. . To help the students develop aesthetic satisfaction of the different forms of the arts, both local and foreign. 5. To enable the students to develop critical and analytical mind in the appreciation of the different form of arts. 6. To make the students aware of the different works of art particularly those of the Filipino artists to make them feel proud of their heritage. Significant Concepts and General Overview of the Humanities A. History of the Humanities In the West, the study of the humanities can be traced to ancient Greece, as a basis of broad education for citizens. During the Roman times, the concept of the seven liberal arts1 evolved, involving grammar, rhetoric, and logic (the Trivium), along with arithmetic, geometry, astronomia, and music (the Quadrivium). These subjects formed the bulk of medieval education, with the emphasis being on the humanities as skills or Ã¢â¬Å"ways of doing. Ã¢â¬ A major shift occurred during the Renaissance, when the humanities began to be regarded as subjects to be studied rather than practiced, with a corresponding shift away from the traditional fields into areas such as literature and history. In the 20th century, this view was in turn challenged by the postmodernist movement, which sought to redefine the humanities in more egalitarian terms suitable for a democratic society. B. What is Humanities? The humanities is a group of academic subjects united by a commitment to studying aspects of the human condition and a qualitative approach that generally prevents a single paradigm from coming to define any single discipline. The humanities are usually distinguished from the social sciences and the natural sciences and include subjects such as the classics, languages, literature, music, philosophy, the performing arts, religion, and the visual arts. Other subjects at times included as humanities in some parts of the world include archaeology, area studies, communications, cultural studies, and history, although these are often regarded as social sciences elsewhere. Many students approach Humanities with awe and dread. They feel the material is overwhelming or obscure or, worse yet, irrelevant to their lives. But this is a false impression. You may or may not believe this now, but you will be reflecting on the material of this course for the rest of your life. Right now, many of you are concerned with very immediate issues: Can I find a job? Can I find a life-partner? Where is the next dollar or peso coming from? Humanities may or may not have the answers to these practical questions right now. But after you have graduated, after you have gotten a job, after you have established yourself in the community, you will come to appreciate the Humanities courses even more. The Humanities courses have been formally defined as presenting Western civilization through the study of history and in equal measure the study of great books. But presented that way, we are actually focusing upon results rather than causes. The Humanities courses try to answer the questions: 1. What does it mean to be human? 2. What are we here for? 3. What is the meaning of life? (we can ask this in a philosophical way) 4. What do I need to do in order to live well and live better? (we can ask this in a practical manner) C. Three (3) Things that Humanities are and One Thing that it is not, Humanities deal with: 1. What humans are: the human 2. What humans do: our humanity 3. What humans can be: the humane 1. What Does it Mean to be Human? If humanities come from humanity and humanity comes from human, we might trace this step further. The word Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ comes from the Latin word Ã¢â¬Å"humusÃ¢â¬ which means Ã¢â¬Å"earthÃ¢â¬ , in the sense of Ã¢â¬Å"soilÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"dustÃ¢â¬ . Interestingly, the name of the Biblical first man, Adam, is derived from Hebrew word Ã¢â¬Å"adamahÃ¢â¬ which means Ã¢â¬Å"dustÃ¢â¬ . On one level, we are children of the earth Ã¢â¬â We go out, work, propagate, and die. Ã¢â¬Å"Dust we are, to dust we shall return. Ã¢â¬ Many of you would say that you are here to get yourself trained for a job. That for many people is the purpose of getting an education. Well and good! We value having a job as much as anyone else. But, important and necessary as job is, it is not sufficient for us to live a fully human life. Much more is possible in living than passing each day mechanically, subject to the push and pull of the moment. Simply put, holding down a job and doing housework is not being fully human. Are we born to bloom and drop? What of Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ , however one cares to define that intangible Ã¢â¬Å"moreÃ¢â¬ that makes human life worthwhile? We all know Ã¢â¬â more is possible; and this more is pointed to by Humanities. 2. What Humans Do Our Humanity Humanities deal with what arises from our humanity and Ã¢â¬Å"humanityÃ¢â¬ refers to all the people who have ever lived, are now living, and who will live in the future. The Humanities deal with what has been accomplished by this great chain of generation through the vast store of human memory we call Ã¢â¬Å"history. Ã¢â¬ We study those things which are distinctively human: art, language, literature, politics, religion, etc. We create and furthermore we can appreciate what we create. This is uniquely human. 3. What Humans Can Be The Humane And finally, Humanities deal with what creates our truest or highest humanity. We become more aware of and more sensitive to the many dimensions of human life. We become more humane Ã¢â¬â we grow in knowledge and sympathy. 4. What Humanities is Not: Humanism2 / Secular Humanism When some people hear the word Ã¢â¬Å"HumanitiesÃ¢â¬ , they associate it with the word Ã¢â¬Å"humanismÃ¢â¬ by which they usually mean Ã¢â¬Å"secular humanismÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a belief system that denies the transcendent and the divine. Secular humanism focuses on this life alone. It says that this world is all that there is Ã¢â¬â there is no transcendent dimension. But Humanities does not necessarily mean Ã¢â¬Å"secular humanism. Ã¢â¬ Secular humanism is only one of many different ways of interpreting what life and history are about. The Humanities courses focus on human achievement; to do so in no way deny that there may be a transcendent dimension to human life as well. Why Study Humanities The most usual question ask by the students regarding the inclusion of humanities in the curriculum is the relevance of the subject to the course. At first, the question sounds reasonable. It is true that the subject does not direct anyone to finding fortune. It does not teach anyone how to produce rice. But moving further into the deep of humanity unsheates the question with its credibility. The question becomes a demonstration of a complete ignorance to the true meaning of life. If this world is made up only of material things such as food, car, money, sex and others, then the artists have no right to inhabit this planet. They can live somewhere in the limbo where perhaps a decent being recognizes the reason of the artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ existence. The basic reason why humanities is included in the curriculum is to equip students with a culture that is necessary to complete his being. This is the culture that frees man from sticking to the mandates of the world. Man is a highly cultures if he could live happily beyond the things that satisfy only the practicalities of life. Saint Thomas Aquinas said: art is opposite to the practical. Art is not concerned whether man has fine dresses, delicious food or if he has money. Art is concerned on something that lives beyond matters. Novelists write without thinking of any monetary return. They do it because there is something that they want humanity to understand. Student should remember that Total Human Development, as the meaning of education does not mean to finish a degree, find a ob and gather wealth to heap. Like the artists, man should labor beyond the value of money. The Branches of Humanities The Humanities can be grouped generally into three: fine arts, practical arts, and performing arts. The following are considered fine arts: 1. Painting. This is a kind of art, which main process is applying color or pigment to a surface. There are different mediums and various types of painting. 2. Literature. This is a kind of art which main medium are the written words. There are two main classifications, prose and poetry. The following are considered performing arts: 1. Dance. This combines movements of feet, hands and body in rhythm. Its aesthetic element is seen on the unity and harmony of the movements. 2. Singing/Music. The art of putting together the sounds in order. Its medium/media are either human voices or instruments, or a combination of the two. . Cinema. Or motion picture that blends together the fundamental and vital elements of music, painting, literature, and music. The following are considered practical arts: 1. Sculpture. Refers to the breaking, and or piecing together hard stone or other shapeable materials to represent something imagined or real. This is an art presented in three dimensions. 2. Architecture. This is an art of designing and constructing a building or other type of structure. Materials include concrete, brick, wood, steel, glass, and plaster. Art as, Personal, and Culturally Significant Meaning By deducing, we can say humanities, in broad terms, is a record of manÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for fundamental questions. By etymology, humanities came from the Latin word HUMANUS which means human, cultured and refined which underscores manÃ¢â¬â¢s essential worth for capacity for self advancement. However, humanities is applied to ancient writings of Latin authors. During the medieval age, it refers to philosophy theology (the quest for spiritual life or a preparation to life hereafter). In Renaissance, it is applied to disciplines taught in Universities (traditional branches are grammar, rhetoric, history, literature, music, philosophy, theology, language), a body of knowledge which asserts intrinsic value of manÃ¢â¬â¢s life on earth (as opposed to medieval times) or in other words, would make manÃ¢â¬â¢s life richer and more meaningful. In 19th cent. , humanities loss its prestige because of sciences which believed that they can procure everything that man needs wants. Consequently, science tones down its rising and humanities finds leverage when science hamper lives nature (atomic bombs, drugs, inventions, etc. , in which science can be well use if itÃ¢â¬â¢s controlled by individual w/ high ideals (the bright side which humanities offers) Furthermore, humanities, controversially, is closely connected to philosophical view of humanism (indebted to Protagoras dictum that Ã¢â¬Å"man is the measure of all thingsÃ¢â¬ which emphasizes dignity worthiness of ma n and recognizes creative expressions). Now, humanities refers to group of cultural subjects or to arts (visual, auditory, performing, literature), a branch which concerned to human thought, feelings relations. Although some universities when they talk of humanities they refer it to philosophy, theology, arts etc. Or by saying humanities, it talks about the inner space program concerned in thoughts, creations, and actions of man in the past in the present (matters of values, sentiments, priorities, insights, interrelations, transcendental realities). Humanities and Science By definition, science is systematized, organized body of knowledge, obtained from observation, studies and experimentations. It deals with the objective and external world of man. While humanities talks about expression, appreciation perception, personality, heart. It deals with the subjective or internal world of man. Importance Science educates minds, hearts; humanities educates feelings sensitivities so that we may use our things without forgetting that we are human beings. humanizing,Ã¢â¬â¢ Salvador Gonzalez says. Furthermore, science alone is not adequate to make man truly humane/educated, humanities is really imperative for humanization. Looking in education system, it prepares us for lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s career (work, work, work) but not for a better life! a life which not living for work alone. Humanities provides man with measure/education of his passion, desire, relation w/ others environment, potentials, and for enjoyment in arts leisure but productive which man will be recreated, fulfilled, creative. But subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s humble objective is for students to be guided in their encounter with arts, find enjoyment in arts not as antidote for dull, boredom, lone moments but capacity to perceive, understand, appreciate arts, as well as personal artistic discovery. Arts By saying humanities, we simply say were talking of artsOur attitude towards arts may be influenced by these basic assumptions: 1. Art has been created by various people, at all places time. It exists because it is liked enjoyed. It does not grow old. 2. Art is something to be seen, heard 3. Art is the product of manÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination, good taste and skill in doing things. 4. Nature is artful, its beauty and artistry could be enhanced. Some philosophers have given up the search for an absolute and eternal definition of art. Although there may be agreement on defining art at any particular place and time, even a cursory look at the history of intellectual thought reveals that people have held quite different views elsewhere and in other periods. Art is always creative, always evolving in style, in purpose, and significantly, in definition. This being the case, art can only have an Ã¢â¬Å"openÃ¢â¬ definition that specifies the traits that are usually present in those things commonly designated as art, even though no single trait is definitely present in all art. However, in any case, it would be facilitating to have a conceptual definition of art to have a grasp of understanding. Etymologically speaking, arts came from a Latin word ARS which means ability skill . It covers those areas of artistic creativity that seeks to communicate beauty primarily to the senses. It applies to such activities that express aesthetic ideas by use of skill imagination in creation of objects/masterpiece. It talks not only of craftsmanship but also proficiency in performing such activity. Arts is an experienced activity 1) wants to communicate 2) expressing or creating 3) gratification of accomplished work. However, loosely, itÃ¢â¬â¢s anything that can be accomplished w/ great skill. Compared to other manÃ¢â¬â¢s activities, arts is impractical: it does not meant to meet to the requirements of day to day living, however, by function we say itÃ¢â¬â¢s for practical usefulness(functional non functional satisfying. Working Definition of Art Art is the communication of feelings/ideas by sensuous medium fashioned into symbolic language marked by beauty of design coherence of forms. Nature of Ar: 1. Aesthetic value (we always expect an art to be beautiful through our relative perception) 2. man-made (planned activity; not natural ; unburdened/shared feelings ) Medium The very existence of an art style presupposes the existence of a medium in which artworks are executed. Medium refers to the materials/means which the artists used to objectify (express) his/her feelings/thought (pigment, stone, wood, metal, plastic, sound, words, gestures, etc. ). However, these medium have inherent limitations as well as potentials to exploits. Symbolic Language Symbolic language refers to subject; it refers to what the work of art is represented/described. It could be representational or nonrepresentational but there lies the difficulty in assessing the matter. The subject provides the answer to the question: What is the painting or piece of sculpture all about? In painting, subject is no problem if the artist has painted realistically. We can somehow understand an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s subject in different levels of meaning through 1. factual 2. conventional meaning 3. subjective meaning. Forms The term forms apply to the over-all design of a work of art. 5 Forms refers to the classification of arts: 1. visual 2. auditory 3. performing 4. literature Michael Harper The Waterbowl EssayIn a long file of things or people, the figures in the distance are smaller than those in the foreground. Object seem to recede in the distance. This is perspective, the distant appearance of an object. 8. Symbols. Artists often include symbolic objects in their paintings. A symbol can be defined as something, which has special meaning or a special message. Artists use them to express such ideas as life, death, hope and faith in God. A painting may have hidden meanings within it as expressed in the symbols the artist uses. 9. Texture. This is the visual appearance of things. In sculpture, this includes the sense of touch that has something to do with the characteristics of surface. It can be rough or smooth, fine or coarse, shiny or dull. In painting, texture represents the skin, clothes, jewelry and other objects of the artists. Styles of Arts According to the Development Men had already appreciated art long before they learned to write. Paintings, believed to have been mastered before the advent of writing are seen on the walls of a certain cave in Cro-Magnon France. This art on the wall has an extreme theme of naturalism. They are reflections of things seen by the haunting cavemen. Most are pictures of wild animals and trees. But as shown further, the development of art in the cave was not left behind by the development of the people from food gathering to food producing. Some paintings contain symbolic elements as modern arts do. There are paintings of fallen leaves to indicate summer, zigzag line probably to indicate mountains or seas and fingers-made stripes may represent the rainbow. 1. Baroque Art It is derived from the word barocco, an ill-shaped pearl. The word can be associated to an overly ornamental thing or person. A person with too much adornment is labeled as Baroque. Curved and zigzag lines, which express vitality and actions, make fit to the standard of baroque art. This art flourished in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Baroque art rejects straight lines because in art straight lines imply simplicity. 2. Gothic Art This is recognizable by its pointed arches and ribbed vaults. Pointed towers exemplify faith. Every important structure of gothic architecture served to illustrate its upright position. 3. Renaissance Rebirth, or revival of the classics. This is a movement in art that aims at bringing back the classic art of the Greeks and Romans. But artists of this period were still free to integrate their own taste into the classic although features of classism such as balance, harmony, proportions and intellectual orders were the standard of the time. 4. Modern Art Modernization is characterized by the advancement of technology. This technology brought several changes to manÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle and this lifestyle gave birth to several aristic creations. Some modern arts that came out through recent inventions are photography, industrial arts, cosmetics, and advertising. Cinematography is also an art that emerged together with the modern innovation of man. Methods of Presenting the Art Subjects General Grouping of Painting Generally, painting can be grouped according to its mood of presentation. First, a painting is called abstract when the painter does not show the subject as it appears in reality. The artist shows only his thought and feeling. At first sight of the painting, the meaning is not easily recognized. Other abstract painters present the figures in some recognizable forms but they are presented in a misshapen manner. Secondly, a painting is considered realistic when the subject is presented as it appears in reality. Critics of arts like Aristotle called this style as mimetic or imitation that the work of art exactly appears in reality. Styles in Painting In presenting anything, methods are employed in order to be effective. There are various methods of presenting art. 1. Realism. In art, this is the attempt to portray the subject as it is. Even when the artist chooses a subject from nature, he selects, changes, and rearranges details to express the idea he wants to make clear. Realists try to objective as possible. Here, the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s main function is to describe as accurately and honestly as possible what is observed through the senses. We can say that an art or work of art is realistic when the presentation and organization of details in the work seem so natural. Realism is a common way of presenting the art subject. In literature, realism has for its goal the faithful rendering of the objective reality of human life. Since the reality is the necessary raw material of all art, realism has certainly existed since literature began. 2. Abstract/Abstractionism. Abstraction is the process of simplifying or organizing objects and elements according to demands of artistic expression. Abstract: to move away, separate, moves away from showing things as they really are. Abstract presents the subject not as it appears in reality. Abstract art, is a style of painting or sculpture that is non-representational and in which form and color are intended to be appreciated in themselves. The term is generally applied to a distinct style of Western art that developed in the early 20th century and that today is still a central concern of artists and sculptors. There are various types of abstracts, which are as follow. a. Distortion. This is a kind of abstract which natural form is twisted or distorted. There is a misshapen look of the picture presented. A good example of this style is seen in the works of Spanish painter, Salvador Dali. b. Elongation. The character or the object being painted is elongated or extended. This is to emphasize a certain purpose of the painter. The Resurrection by El Greco for instance applied this style to mean that spirit and not the soul goes to heaven. c. Mangling. The object is presented as cut, lacerated, mutilated or hacked. This is not well-used kind of abstractionism. d. Cubism. Abstractionism that stressed through the use of some geometrical shapes such as cylindrical, triangular, spherical and other forms at the expense of the other pictorial elements as in the works of Pablo Picasso. e. Abstract Expressionism. It is a style of abstract painting that originated in New York City after World War II and gained an international vogue. Strong color, heavy impasto, uneven brush strokes, and rough textures are other typical characteristics. Abstract Expressionism departs completely from subject matter, from studied precision, and from any kind of preconceived design. 3. Symbolism. A symbol is a thing or a single object that stands for another thing. It is the visible sign of something invisible such as idea. A flying dove for instance stands for freedom. In painting, the subject is not visible. A sign or an emblem represents it. The objective is to transcend the ordinary sign reality and assumes new and fresh meaning originating from highly personal and even unique association born in the mind of the artist. examples: parables of Jesus, Juan LunaÃ¢â¬â¢s Spolarium) Symbolism, use of symbols to convey different meanings. Symbols maybe anything: object, words, colors, or patterns; their defining characteristic is that they stand for something other than their intrinsic property. For instance, while there is nothing intrinsically dangerous about the color red, it has become a symbol for danger in a number of societies. Sy mbols are equally potent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. For instance, a national flag or anthem, the crucifix, or indeed the color of sports teams can be charged with meaning and emotion. 4. Fauvism. from the French word Ã¢â¬Å"fauvesÃ¢â¬ which means wild beast/animals because of use of uncontrolled, non-natural, and exuberant means. It is a kind of style or movement in painting that is characterized by thick pigment. Fauvism is usually used to express a feeling of joy, comfort or pleasure through extremely Gogh bright colors. A fauvist is too much concerned on the brightness of the colors. Van GoghÃ¢â¬â¢s Starry Night is an example of Fauvism. Fauvism is a relatively short-lived movement in French painting (from about 1898 to about 1908) that revolutionized the concept of color in modern art. The Fauves rejected the Impressionist palette of soft, shimmering tones in favor of the violent colors used by the Post-Impressionist for expressive emphasis. They achieved a poetic energy through vigorous lines, simplified yet dramatic surface pattern, and intense color. 5. Dadaism. Artistic and literary movement reflecting a widespread nihilistic protest against militarism during and after World War I. The term dada, the French word for the hobbyhorse, is said to have been selected at random from a dictionary by the Romanian-born poet, essayist and editor Tristan Tzara. In their efforts to express the negation of all current aesthetic and social values, the Dadaist frequently used artistic and literary methods that were deliberately incomprehensible. Their theatrical performances and manifestos were often designed to shock or bewilder, with the aim of startling the public into a reconsideration of accepted aesthetic values. To this end, the Dadaist used novel materials, including discarded objects found in the streets, and new methods, such as allowing chance to determine the elements of their works. The German painter and writer Kurt Schwitters was noted for his collages composed of waste papers and similar materials. The French artist Marcel Duchamp exhibited as works of art ordinary commercial products Ã¢â¬â such as a store-bought bottle rack and urinal Ã¢â¬â which he called ready-mades. Although Dadaist employed revolutionary techniques, their revolt against standards was based on a profound belief, stemming from Romantic tradition, in the essential goodness of humanity when corrupted by society. Dadaism as a movement declined in the 1920s, and some of its practitioners became prominent in other modern-art movements, notably Surrealism. 6. Futurism. Early 20th Ã¢â¬â century movement in art that pointedly rejected all traditions and attempted instead to glorify contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing its two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The principles of Futurism were laid down by the Italian poet Flippo Tommaso Marinetti and published by him in a manifesto in 1909. Movies such as Star Wars, Time Machine and others picture out something in the future. The same thing is portrayed in the paintings. It exalts success in technology. Subject includes supersonic trains, jets, modern houses and anything that relates to the importance of modernization. 7. Surrealism. A movement in literature and fine arts, founded by the French poet and critic Andre Breton. Surrealism grows directly out of Dada, an art and literary movement reflecting nihilistic protest against all aspects of Western culture. Like Dadaism, surrealism emphasized the role of the unconscious in creative activity, but it employed the psychic unconscious in a more orderly and more serious manner. Surrealism is a style in presenting art by fantastic or incongruous imagery produced by unnatural combinations. Surreal means intense irrationality or beyond natural. It emphasizes activities of the subconscious mind. In other words, surrealism pictures out images in a form of a dream. Surrealism creates forms and images not by reason but by impulse, blind feeling. It attempts to show what inside manÃ¢â¬â¢s mind as well as appearance of the outside world. 8. Expressionism. This was a European method that flourished in the first decade of the twentieth century. In this method, the artist has a freedom to consider his personal style in presenting his subject or expressing his thought or feeling. Types of Painting / Medium of the Visual Arts Throughout the history of art, a variety of supports and tools have been used to create paintings. Here are the characteristics of several types of painting: 1. Water Color. As the word suggests, it is a combination of coloring materials and water. It is the most commonly used medium of painting particularly among school children because it is easy to use and is readily available in stores. 2. Oil. Oil-based paints produce glossy products. It slowly dries. Oil paint consists of ground pigments mixed with linseed oil vehicle and turpentine medium or thinner. Oil painting is slow in drying and allows corrections or working over. Drying can be facilitated with various agents added to the basis mixture. Since its development near the beginning of the 15th century, oil has gained popularity due to the variety of opportunities it gives to the painter. It presents many options for textural manipulation and is durable. 3. Tempera. It is one of the old mediums that persisted through the ages. It was well used before oil was adopted. Its mineral coloring is a mixture of egg yolks and ore. This medium is usually applied to a wooden panel that is made very plain with plaster called gesso. This type of painting was popular for centuries but is rarely used today. In egg tempera, ground pigments are mixed with vehicle of egg yolk and thinned with water. Tempera was the exclusive painting medium of artists during the middle ages. In the 1300Ã¢â¬â¢s, oil paint was invented in Northern Europe which led to the decline of tempera. If applied to a properly prepared surface, tempera is extremely durable. It can possibly attain pure and brilliant colors. Also the consistency and fluidity of the mixture allow great deal of precision. Tempera painting is usually done in a wooden panel that has been made smooth with a plaster coating. The pigment is mixed with egg yolk and dries quickly, thus there is a little blending or fusing of colors. 4. Pastel. This is a stick paste made of powdered pigment. It looks like a crayon and it is applied like a crayon. Although it is readily available and very easy to use, it does not attract the attention of the artists because its finished product is difficult to preserve. Pastel color closely resembles dry pigment. It possesses only surface light and does not give glazed effect. The pigments used in tempera may be used for pastel. The pigment is bound in order to form a crayon which is applied directly to the surface which is usually paper. Painting paper, pasteboard or canvass is used as support for pastel painting. Pastel is a flexible medium which may produce varied effects. However, pastel has not become very popular medium, maybe because no one has yet discovered the way to preserve its original freshness. The chalk tends to rub off and the picture loses some of its brilliance. 5. Fresco. It is taken from the word fresh, the art of painting on fresh plaster. This medium flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries. Michel AngeloÃ¢â¬â¢s Sistine chapel and Leonardo da VinciÃ¢â¬â¢s Last Supper are examples of fresco painting. Fresco is the art of painting on plaster. Buon Fresco, or true fresco is applied on damp lime plaster; Fresco Secco is painting on dry plaster. In Buon Fresco, the pigments are mixed only with water and the lime of the plaster wall acts as a binder. As the wall dries, the painted image on it becomes permanent. The fresco secco, the pigments are combined with a vehicle of glue that affixes the color to the dry wall. Fresco painting also poses some problems one of which is the fact that the artist is limited to only what he can finish in one day since the paint must be applied to fresh, damp plaster. For this reason, large fresco paintings are composed of small sections, each has been painted in a day. The sections must be arranged in such a way that the joints will not be obvious, yet sometimes it is not possible to do so. Another problem is that there are some pigments that do not form chemical bonds with lime, thus, making these pigments unsuitable to the medium. Such lime resistance limits the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s palette and can make tonal transitions difficult. The Sistine Chapel in Rome is magnificently decorated with paintings by Michael Angelo. The series of frescoes continue to be one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest achievements in art. 6. Acrylic. It is a paint which adhesive element is acrylic resin. Contemporary artist use it because of its quick drying characteristic. Its good quality is that it preserves the freshness of the art through the years. Acrylic paint is a mixture of pigment and a vehicle that can be thinned with water. Unlike linseed oil, the synthetic resin of the binder dries colorless and does not compromise the brilliance of the colors. Also unlike oil paint, acrylic can be used in various surfaces that do not need special preparations. It is flexible and past drying, and it is water soluble, it requires no flammable substances for use or clean up. Acrylics constitute modern synthetic products and use an acrylic polymer as a binding agent.